ÅstrandBMIHand GripSit & ReachAbdominal OutlineSkin Folds
By Frank van Rooijen - Sappy.nl

The Åstrand Cycling Test


Men start cycling on 50 watt, women at 25 Watts. You keep cycling at a constant speed of 60 rotations per minute. Build up the resistance until your heart rate is between 120 – 170 bpm.

The Astrand Test Protocol
When the right heart beat is reached you can start the test. The test will last for 6 minutes. During the test you must keep cycling at the 60 rpm. At the end of the test you must measure your heart beat. You will need it for the calculation. The lower the heart beat the better your condition.

The Cooling-down
Continue cycling for about 5 minutes at low rpm.




BMI - Body Mass Index


The body mass index or Quetelet index, is a statistical measurement which compares a person's weight and height (weight x length in meters2 ). Though it does not actually measure the percentage of fat, it is a useful tool to estimate a healthy body weight based on how tall a person is.
Due to its ease of measurement and calculation, it is the most widely used diagnostic tool to identify obesity problems within a population. However, it is not considered appropriate to use as a final indication for diagnosing individuals.




Pinch Test


The purpose of this test is to measure grip or forearm muscle strength. Handgrip strength is important for any sport in which the hands are used for catching, throwing or lifting. Also, as a general rule people with strong hands tend to be strong elsewhere.

Equipment required: 
Handgrip dynamometer.

Description / procedure:
The subject to be tested holds the dynamometer in the hand to be tested, with the arm at right angles and the elbow by the side of the body. The handle of the dynamometer is adjusted if required. The base should rest on first metacarpal (heel of palm), while the handle should rest on middle of four fingers. The subject squeezes the dynamometer with maximum
isometric effort, which is maintained for about 5 seconds. No other body movement is allowed. Repeat three times. The best score is the indicator.





Sit & Reach Test


This test measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles.

Equipment required:
Sit & reach Box

Description / procedure:
This test involves sitting on the floor with legs out straight ahead. Feet (shoes off) are placed with the soles flat against the box, shoulder-width apart. Both knees are held flat against the floor by the tester. With hands on top of each other and palms facing down, the subject reaches forward along the measuring line as far as possible. After three practice reaches, the fourth reach is held for at least two seconds while the distance is recorded. Make sure there is no jerky movements, and that the fingertips remain level and the legs flat.




Abdominal Outline


People who have to much fat on there abdominal area, may get serious health problems. The abdominal outline has a connection with the BMI (Body Mass Index).

Test Protocol:
Measure the abdominal outline. Measure your waist at the smallest point between the last rib and hip.




Skin Creach Test


Skinfold thickness is an index of subcutaneous fat and hence body fat content. Measured at four sites: biceps (midpoint of front upper arm), triceps(midpoint of back upper arm), subscapular (directly below point of shoulder blade at angle of 45 degrees), suprailiac (directly above iliac crest in midaxillary line). The skinfold result is the sum of the four measurements.